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Manfaat Konsumsi Ikan Tongkol saat Pandemi COVID-19
Pada masa pandemi Covid-19 telah berdampak negatif setiap sektor kehidupan masyarakat dunia. Salah satunya nelayan tangkap dan budidaya. Produksi perikanan banyak yang tidak terjual. Walau pun terjual harganya menurun dan pembeli pun berkurang.Perlu diketahui bahwa tongkol merupakan salah satu ikan yang paling banyak dijumpai di perairan Indonesia. Ikan tongkol merupakan bagian dari keluarga tuna dengan nama latin Euthynnus affinis atau dikenal juga dengan kawakawa atau little tuna.Ikan tongkol memiliki kulit yang licin berwarna abu-abu, dagingnya tebal, dan warna dagingnya merah tua.Di dalam ikan tongkol, terdapat lemak, protein, sodium, kalium, zat besi, natrium, vitamin A, vitamin C, kalsium, dan zat besi yang dibutuhkan oleh tubuh.Baca juga: 6 Manfaat Rumput Laut bagi Kesehatan dan Kecantikan, Bantu Turunkan Berat BadanBerikut manfaat bagi tubuh saat mengkonsumsi ikan tongkol :1. Menjaga Kesehatan MataSalah satu sumber menyebutkan bahwa, penelitian yang dilakukan oleh John Hopkins School of Medicine mengungkapkan bahwa kandungan manfaat omega 3 yang terdapat pada ikan tongkol ini, dapat mengurangi resiko mengalami AMD (Age Macular Disease) atau jenis penyakit mata yang disebabkan oleh penuaan.Selain itu, kandungan omega 3 ini juga akan menurunkan angka resiko anda mengalami kerusakan pada mata.2. Menyembuhkan Penyakit RematikAnda sering merasakan nyeri dan sakit akibat rematik? Selain mengkonsumsi obat-obatan rematik, ternyata ikan tongkol ini juga dapat membantu dalam proses penyembuhan penyakit rematik yang diderita. Ikan tongkol dapat Anda olah sesuai selera,seperti :DigorengDibuat supIkan tongkol baladoSebagai campuran pada masakan lain, seperti nasi goreng atau mie gorengAnda dapat mengkonsumsi olahan ikan tongkol tersebut setiap hari apabila ingin membantu proses penyembuhan rematik yang parah.Baca juga: Mengenal Manfaat Ikan Tuna bagi Kesehatan3. Dapat Mencegah AnemiaIkan tongkol memiliki kandungan manfaat zat besi alami, yang dapat membantu untuk mencegah terserang anemia. Anemia yang diderita dapat memunculkan gejala-gejala seperti :5 L (letih, lesu, lunglai, lemah, dan lemas)Daya tahan tubuh menurunPegal pegal pada bagian persendianWajah memucatMudah terserang berbagai macam penyakit.Namun perlu diperhatikan, apabila ingin mengkonsumsi ikan tongkol untuk mencegah terjadinya anemia, pastikan untuk tidak menggoreng ikan tongkol. Rebuslah ikan tongkol segar dan buatlah menjadi semacam sup untuk dikonsumsi setiap harinya.4. Mencegah Ejakulasi DiniTernyata, tidak hanya dagingnya yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan tubuh, namun bagian insang dari ikan tongkol ini dapat membantu untuk mengatasi dan mencegah ejakulasi dini.5. Meningkatkan kemampuan kognitifOmega 3 yang tekandung dalam ikan tongkol dapat membantu mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir dan kemampuan kognitif seseorang. Selain bermanfaat bagi yang ingin meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif, dapat juga bermanfaat bagi ibu yang sedang mengandung, agar kemampuan kognitif dari bayi menjadi semakin baik.6. Detoksifikasi hatiKandungan selenium yang terdapat pada ikan tongkol dapat membantu organ hati untuk melakukan proses detoksifikasi atau pengeluaran racun tubuh. Selenium dapat mempercepat dan membantu proses tersebut.Baca juga: 6 Manfaat Ikan Bandeng untuk Kesehatan, Kaya Nutrisi7. Melindungi saluran pencernaanLagi-lagi, kandungan omega 3 yang terdapat pada ikan tongkol sangat bermanfaat bagi kesehatan tubuh kita. Manfaat lain omega 3 ini, adalah membantu dalam menjaga saluran pencernaan tubuh. Hal ini dapat mengurangi resiko terjadinya kanker pada organ-organ pencernaan dan juga membantu mencegah terjadinya kanker ovarium pada wanita.Rebus insang dari ikan tongkol segar dengan menggunakan 3-4 lembar daun jeruk purutTambahkan garam, masak hingga mendidihMinum airnya kira-kira 1 sampai 2 jam sebelum melakukan hubunganNamun demikian, manfaat ini sepertinya belum teruji secara ilmiah dan hanya menimbulkan unsur sugestif, sehingga masih harus diteliti lebih lanjut.8. Menjaga kesehatan jantung Selain untuk menjaga kesehatan mata dan tubuh, kandungan omega 3 yang terdapat pada ikan tongkol, mampu menjaga kesehatan jantung anda. Kandungan omega 3 ini dapat menjaga detak jantung sehingga memperkecil kemungkinan terjadinya serangan jantung. Khasiat seperti ini juga di dapat pada :9. Kandungan protein yang tinggiYa, ikan tongkol merupakan salah satu jenis ikan laut yang memiliki kandungan protein yang tinggi. Protein pada ikan tongkol sering dimanfaatkan sebagai asupan protein yang rendah lemak, biasanya sebagai pengganti manfaat daging merah. Berikut ini adalah beberapa manfaat dari protein yang terkandung di dalam ikan tongkol :Meningkatkan masa ototMenambah daya tahan tubuhMemperkuat ototMengikat lemakMemberikan energy lebih bagi tubuh10. Mencegah terjadinya obesitas Ikan tongkol memiliki kandungan EPA yang tinggi. EPA yang tinggi ini dapat menstimulasi munculnya hormon leptin yang dapat menghindari keinginan untuk mengkonsumsi makanan yang berlebihan. Dengan menghindari konsumsi makanan yang berlebihan ini, maka akan terbantu dalam mencegah terjadinya obesitas pada diri.Itulah beberapa manfaat dari ikan tongkol yang bisa diperoleh. Perlu diingat, khasiat dan manfaat ikan tongkol ini akan lebih optimal ketika mengolah ikan tongkol dengan bahan-bahan yang bernutrisi tinggi lainnya, sehingga sangat bermanfaat bagi kesehatan tubuh. Sumber: Viva.co.id ...
How Do Salmon Know Where They Were Hatched?
How salmon find their way back to where they were hatched has been one of nature’s most enduring mysteries.Researchers in Oregon State University’s College of Agricultural Sciences believe they are a little closer to this elusive answer.Salmon are born in fresh water and most of them live their adult lives in the ocean. Then, they make an incredible upstream journey to spawn (lay eggs) in the same places that they were hatched.The new study into the life cycle of salmon, involving magnetic pulses, reinforces one hypothesis: The fish use microscopic crystals of magnetite in their tissue as both a map and compass and navigate via the Earth’s magnetic field.Baca juga: Effect of Juvenile Atlantic Salmon Diets with Different Levels of PUFAsResearchers including David Noakes, professor of fisheries and wildlife at OSU and the director of the Oregon Hatchery Research Center, subjected juvenile chinook salmon to a type of brief but strong magnetic pulse known to reverse the polarity of magnetic particles and affect magnetic orientation behaviour in other animals.Magnetic pulses are known to alter magnetic orientation behaviour in a range of terrestrial and aquatic animals, among them mole rats, bats, birds, sea turtles and lobsters.The new study is the first evidence linking a magnetic pulse to behavioural changes in fish. The findings were published in the Journal of Experimental Biology.Magnetite, an oxide of iron and one of the primary iron ores, is expressed chemically as Fe3O4 and is the most magnetic of the Earth’s naturally occurring minerals. Naturally magnetized magnetite is known as lodestone and was ancient people’s introduction to the concept of magnetism.Magnetite is the basis for one of two ways salmon are thought to find their way around; the other is the theory of chemical magnetoreception, which suggests biochemical reactions influenced by the ambient magnetic field are a navigational tool.Baca juga: Global Astaxanthin Market to Expand as Dietary Supplements Become a Part of the Food Industry“In the big picture, these salmon know where they are, where they’re supposed to be, how to get there and how to make corrections if needed,” said Noakes, the study’s corresponding author.“While they’re in fresh water, they’re imprinting upon the chemical nature of the water. When they hit salt water, they switch over to geomagnetic cues and locks in that latitude and longitude, knowing they need to come back to those coordinates. And when they decide to come back, it is months in advance because they’re halfway to Japan.”After reaching the mouth of the river that took them to the ocean, the salmon swim upstream to spawn at the exact location where they hatched.“In the river, they seem to rely upon chemical signals,” Noakes said. “There’s ongoing research looking into that.”The magnetic pulse could have affected the salmon’s map, compass or both, Noakes said.“But we’ll need more research to confirm or refute this hypothesis…We’re trying to figure out the life cycle of the salmon from the points of highest information — when they go from fresh water to salt water and when they turn around and come back.”Source: Sea West News ...
Evaluating Extruded Feeds for Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp
The process used to produce aquaculture feeds has a direct impact on the physicochemical properties of the feeds, which can affect the durability and stability of the pellets and also the water quality. In addition, processing conditions during manufacture can also alter the nutritional quality of ingredients and thus influence feed digestibility and bioavailability.Maintaining the nutritional quality of ingredients during processing is key in aquaculture feed manufacturing. The deterioration of nutritional quality and the misuse of nutrients are challenges in most traditional cooking methods used. Pelleting has historically been the most commonly used technique in the production of manufactured aquaculture feeds, but extrusion technology has some unique, favorable characteristics when compared to other cooking processes, since it is capable of transforming some nutrients (proteins, starches) so that its properties improve, increasing nutrient availability.Additionally, the extrusion process denatures undesirable enzymes and deactivates some anti-nutritional factors, enhancing the bioavailability of ingredients. Precision in the bioavailability of a feed is relevant for the correct formulation and production of diets.However, the success of extruded feeds depends on the machinery used and is also linked to knowledge and “expertise” in the process. Several years ago, industry consultant Charles Botting [Extrusion technology in aquaculture feed processing. 1991. American Soybean Association] illustrated the relevance of extruded feeds, stating, “Companies and clients often question the need to produce or consume extruded feeds, especially when they are achieving good results with pellets, but there is a great possibility to improve even more the quality and cost-efficiency of the product with extruded feed; a good extruded feed is always better than a good pelletized feed.”This article, adapted from the original publication [Aquaculture (Ecuador) – Issue 134, April 2020], reports on the results of research to assess the effects of extruded feeds on their digestibility and production in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles.Baca Juga: Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Quality of Pacific White ShrimpDigestibility of proteins, amino acids and carbohydratesIn the first study, the apparent digestibility of protein (DAP), amino acids (DAAA) and carbohydrates (DAC) was determined in L. vannamei juveniles (6 to 10 grams) sourced from a local commercial farm with a salinity of 7.0 ± 0.4 ppt. The shrimp were acclimated to the salinity of the experimental unit and fed extruded and pelletized diets with the same base formula (35 percent crude protein, 7.5 percent crude fat), which included chromium oxide as an inert marker.This experiment was carried out in a recirculation system using 60-liter tanks, and the water was recirculated at a daily rate of 400 percent. Ten shrimp were stocked per tank and maintained for five days before feces collection started. The animals were fed once in the morning and once in the afternoon, with a 3 percent daily increase in the feeding rate.Extruded and pelletized diets were randomly assigned to each experimental tank in quadruplicate. At the beginning of each collection day, feces and uneaten food were removed from the tanks to minimize any undesirable effects that might be due to leaching. Fresh feces were collected after each feeding by siphoning, washed prevent any effects due to salinity, and stored refrigerated until being lyophilized for subsequent analyses.Our analyses showed a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) in protein digestibility levels: the percentage of protein digested in the extruded feed was higher than in the pelletized feed. In other words, shrimp utilized better the protein of the extruded diet (Table 1)Molina, extruded feed, Table 1FeedDAP (%) DAC (%) Extruded83.84 ± 0.67ᵃ93.88 ± 1.94ᵃPelleted82.63 ± 0.93ᵇ90.71 ± 0.61ᵇTable 1. Apparent digestibility of protein (DAP) and carbohydrates (DAC) in foods produced by pelletizing and extrusion. *Means ± SD that do not share a letter were significantly different (p <0.05). Proteins are essential components of the cell and therefore constitute the bulk of shrimp muscle tissue. Shrimp development is based on the release of essential amino acids to fulfill structural, regulatory and homeostatic functions. Research has shown that the heat treatment involved in the wet extrusion process used to make shrimp feed can be enough to inactivate most of the trypsin inhibitors [the enzyme trypsin is involved in the breakdown of many different proteins, primarily during digestion] in soybean meal. This is important, because trypsin is the protease in charge of breaking peptide bonds and releasing short-chain peptides and amino acids.Amino acid digestibility in our results shows a significant difference in arginine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, glycine and proline. In these cases, the digestibility percentage was higher for the extruded feed. And for the results for protein digestibility, the extruded product showed better bioavailability.In addition, the percentage of amino acid digestibility in the extruded diet for lysine and methionine – two essential amino acids whose bioavailability in shrimp feed is of utmost importance for their metabolism and tissue formation based on complex proteins – is remarkable. This affects the formation of shrimp tissue and therefore the growth rate. A higher growth rate in turn allows greater efficiency and profitability, shortening the production cycle.The most suitable energy sources for shrimp feeds are those ingredients with high carbohydrate content. But the starches from the vast majority of tubers, cereals and legumes that are used in animal diets are not easily accessible for the very important alpha-amylase enzyme, unless the grains are physically treated previously.Wet cooking with temperatures higher than 70 degrees-C for several minutes is the main method that facilitates the availability of starch for water penetration and consequently allows the action of alpha-amylase. When starches are processed by extrusion, their structure changes radically, allowing more contact points for the enzyme to break down the starch into small molecules, releasing glucose. Therefore, cooked or gelatinized starches have higher digestibility compared to undercooked or raw starches.Our results show that the content of digested carbohydrates in the extruded feed is significantly higher than in the pelleted feed (Table 1). The reason is that the extrusion cooking process of ingredients with high carbohydrate content increases their bioavailability, and therefore their assimilation.Molina, extruded feed, Table 2FeedFinal weight Weekly growth (g/week) Biomass (g/tank) FCR Survival (%)Extruded11.51a0.99a103.17a1.7a90aPelleted10.38b0.85b93.44b1.52a90aTable 2. Yield of shrimp fed experimental – extruded and pelleted – diets with similar formulas.Performance under controlled conditionsIn the second study, L. vannamei shrimp (3.86 ± 0.06 grams) were stocked at a density of 15 shrimp per square meter in tanks and reared for 54 days. The animals were fed two experimental diets, each with four replicate tanks per dietary treatment. The shrimp were slightly overfed three times a day so that feed availability was not limiting.The results showed statistical differences (p <0.05) in weekly growth, weight and final biomass between the dietary treatments, while there were no differences for survival and feed conversion between treatments. The shrimp in tanks fed the extruded feed had 9 percent higher final biomass and 10 percent higher final weight, indicating that the extrusion process positively influences shrimp performance.Previous studies with extruded feeds and shrimp have produced better results than pelleted feeds. Several authors have reported advantages using extruded feeds for production of L. vannamei; for example, some researchers have demonstrated that extruded feeds produced better growth than pelleted feeds (8.35 grams vs. 7.11 grams) in a controlled experimental system. Similar results have been reported for other cultured crustaceans; for example, postlarvae of giant river prawn (Macrobranchium rosembergii) fed an extruded feed had better specific growth rate and protein efficiency rate compared to a pelleted diet, and nutrient loss and feed conversion were lower with the extruded feed treatment. Baca juga: Effect of Streptomyces Probiotics on Gut Microbiota of Pacific White ShrimpField performanceWe assessed the effect of extruded feed on shrimp growth, survival, feed conversion, cost of production and economic performance, by evaluating data from 271 production cycles between January and October 2019 in shrimp farms located in the Gulf of Guayaquil.For this analysis, we selected shrimp ponds that had received nutritionally complete, 35 percent protein feeds and were fed manually, and these ponds were grouped based on whether they had received extruded or pelletized feeds during the production cycles. Initial shrimp weights in these ponds were 0.4 to 0.6 grams, and stocking densities were 13 to 15 postlarvae per square meter. Production cycles lasted for 104 to 119 days depending on the harvest weight targeted.Results of our data analyses show that manual feeding reduced feed conversion by 17 percent in ponds receiving extruded when compared to ponds receiving pelleted feeds (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Averaged feed conversion and growth rates reported by type of feed – extruded and pelleted.The weekly increase in weight was 11 percent higher in ponds receiving extruded feeds, and this was reflected in larger harvest weights produced in a significantly fewer time – around 15 days (Fig. 2). Fig. 2: Average final weights and days of culture reported by type of feed – extruded and pelleted.The survival rate was 7 percent higher in ponds receiving extruded feeds compared to ponds fed pelleted feeds (Fig. 3). It is likely that shortening the production cycle had an effect on this parameter, as the former had less exposure time to environmental changes and pathogens. Fig. 3: Survival rates reported by type of feed – extruded and pelleted.Regarding economic performance – even feeding just once or twice per day –ponds receiving extruded feeds had a cost of production 90 percent lower per pound, and a 13 percent higher profitability than ponds fed with pelleted feeds (Fig. 4). Fig. 4: Average cost and profit reported by type of feed – extruded and pelleted. ConclusionsOur results demonstrate the beneficial effects on digestibility of proteins, amino acids and carbohydrates for shrimp feeds produced by extrusion compared to pelleted feeds. Increasing the bioavailability of these nutrients through extrusion manufacturing shows a positive effect in commercial ponds, with shorter crop cycles, a higher production yield using less feed per pound of shrimp produced, and a reduction in production costs.Source: Aquaculture Allience ...